Very little data are available on habitat types distribution within the district of Sandakan and therefore, this chapter is limited to a general description of three main habitat types (land, coastal and marine). Differences in species composition of flora are mainly related to soil structure, topography and human activities. Seven major plant communities are categorised in the pristine habitats of Sandakan district and at least four major types of exploited habitats are differentiated. In these disturbed habitats, flora diversity is low compared to the equivalent pristine habitats and the composition is different: most species have been planted by man or are regenerating ones (colonisation species).
To our knowledge, there is no existing map of the distribution of the different habitat types in the Sandakan district, and very little data seems to be available.
Habitats found are wetlands (saline mangroves and nipah swamps along the coastline; freshwater swamps and flood prone land along the Kinabatangan floodplain) and dry lowland (dipterocarp forest) dotted with sandstones ridges and limestone formations.
Coastal waters of Sandakan district are rather shallow and the bottom shelves are not too steep. The shoreline is composed of mangrove areas with mud or sand beaches. The Sandakan district includes parts of two extensive river deltas (of the Kinabatangan and Labuk rivers). The delta areas are brackish and tidal.
There are several reefs found in the district, where the waters are shallow and turbid and therefore does not allow a great deal of vertical life development.
Corals: Data on reef biodiversity are mainly available for "Turtles Islands National Park". In general, reefs are not particularly luxuriant and most coral colonies are massive or encrusting: Seriatoporidae (Pocillopora), Acroporidae (Montipora), Agariciidae (Pavona), Faviidae (Goniastrea), Octocoralliae (Heliopora). Further information regarding coral reefs can probably be obtained from Sabah Parks or the University Malaysia Sabah.
The Turtle islands (Pulau Gulisan, Selingan, and Bakkungan Kecil) at the southern entrance to the Labuk Bay, form the Turtle Islands National Park. Each island has a predominantly sandy shoreline and the sand extends to the reef areas.
Mangroves (M): Mangroves are found along the coast and the main deltas subjected to tidal influences (brackish water swamp). The mangrove forest is floristically and structurally simple and is dominated by Rhizophora mucronata (lining Sandakan bay), R. apiculata, Ceriops tagal, Lumnitzera littorea, Sonneratia sp., Avicennia sp. and dense strands of Bruguieria gymnorrhiza. Nipa (Nypa fructitans) and nibong palm (Oncosperma tigillarium) occur in association with mangroves, often lining the tidal reaches of rivers and form swamps in places like the Kinabatangan estuarine. Figure 4.1 shows the distribution of mangrove forest reserve in the Sandakan district
Beach vegetation (BV): This vegetation is located all around the coast, interspersed with mangroves: coloniser trees like Casuarina equisetifolia, Barringtonia asiatica, coarse grass.
Freshwater swamp forest (FSF): Freshwater swamp forest is mostly found behind mangrove areas on clayish fertile soils. Such forests appear to be frequently inundated, depending on the tide and on rainfall. Prominent tree species include Quassia indica, Terminalia copelandii and other T. sp., Myristicaceae and Nauclea sp.
Riparian riverine forest (RRF): This type of forest is located up-river along the banks where there is no tidal influence but where it floods periodically (fertile alluvium soils). The vegetation is mainly grass, herbs, and a variety of small and bushy trees. The tallest species are Leguminosae, Octomeles sumatrana, Ficus sp.
Lowland dipterocarp forest (LDF): This forest originally covered most of Sabah and is the richest and most diverse in terms of plant species. It is currently found in the Forest Reserves of the Sandakan district, Sepilok and Gomantong being the two most important ones. The flora of Sepilok reserve contain at least 350 different tree species and represent almost 40% of the known flora of Dipterocarpaceae in Sabah. An overview is given by Meijer (1960) and Fox (1973). The most common families are Dipterocarpaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiacea, Annonacae, Flacourtaceae, Rubiacea. Wild edible species are also found: Bombacaceae (durian trees), Ebenaceae (Dyospyros sp.), Moraceae (Arctocarpus sp.), Anacardiaceae (Mangifera sp.). The distribution of this forest in the Sandakan district is shown in Figure 4.1.
Sandstone hill dipterocarp forest (SHDF): This type occurs extensively on sandstone ridges. Very tall trees are absent from this formation and the upper canopy is lower and more even in structure compared to LDF. Common dipterocarps include Shorea beccariana, S. multiflora and Dipterocarpus acutangulus.
Limestone forest (LF): This type is mainly found in Gomantong Forest Reserve that holds a system of caves. Vegetation is specialised, mainly shrubs and small trees. Tristania sp., Shorea sp. and Ixonanthes sp. are the major tree species.
Figure 4.1: Map showing the Distribution of Mangrove Forest Reserve and Lowland Dipterocarp Forest in Sandakan District
Logged mangrove (LM): The main trees have been cut and the vegetation consists of shrubs and small trees.
Logged lowland dipterocarp forest (LLDF): This forest consists of grass, herbs, shrubs and small trees. Few emergent trees are remaining after logging (Koompassia excelsa). Regenerating species are dominant: Macaranga sp., Anthocephalus chinensis, Trema sp. These habitats are patchily distributed in the district and most of these pockets of forest (locally called belukar) tend to be cleared out and replaced with oil palm plantations.
Permanent mixed agriculture (PMA): This habitat (patchwork of orchards, vegetable gardens, small cash-crop plantations and belukar) is mainly found around Sandakan town, human settlements and the roads. The composition is very heterogeneous: vegetables, fruit trees, coconut trees and others. Shrubs, herbs, grasses and regenerating species (Macaranga sp.) are the most common non-cultivated species.
Oil palm plantations (OPP): Large-scale monocultures of Elaeis guineensis are the main habitat types found within and around the district of Sandakan. These plantations cover most parts of the inland area of the district.
For more details on flora composition, refer to the different reports available at Sepilok Forestry Research Centre (Botanical and Herbarium departments).
Seawater fish: Fish community is interesting and varied on most of the reefs: the main types are fusilier, monocle bream, butterfly fish (Chaetodontidae), damselfish (Pomacentridae), wrasse (Labridae), parrotfish (Scaridae), etc. The reefs are breeding and feeding grounds of many commercially important species of fish and crustaceans. As a result, the biodiversity (number of species) and the quantity of fish and shark species found in all the district waters are high. Data concerning species of fish found in Sandakan seawaters might be available at the Fishery Department. A final report on shark census carried out in 1997 should be available later on this year.
Freshwater fish: In 1962, Inger and Chin carried out a survey in Sabah and found that some rare species occurred in Sepilok Forest Reserve: Acanthophtalmus sandakanensis, Mastacembelus keithi, etc. Many edible freshwater fish species are found in the estuarine and the large rivers within the district (list in Azmi, 1997 - unpublished reports available at the Fishery Department).
Freshwater crustaceans: Species of edible freshwater prawn and crabs are still commonly found in rivers like Kinabatangan, Segaliud and other small rivers in the district.
Insects: Our knowledge of the invertebrate fauna of equatorial forests is very poor. Several entomological collections have been made in Sepilok Forest Reserve and are available at the entomological section of the Sepilok Forest Research Centre. The richest habitat type in terms of insect biodiversity is the LDF.
Reptiles and amphibians: Limited collections and descriptions of amphibians are available for Sabah but Inger has carried out a survey in Sepilok Forest Reserve in 1966. Snakes (at least twenty species) and lizards are still common within the district. Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), monitor lizards and freshwater turtles (Pelochelys bibroni) can still be found in a small number in the mangroves and the swamps of the district. The Turtle Islands, located in front of Sandakan, are of prime importance for conservation of sea turtles. Several species come to the sand beaches for laying eggs; the most common being the green turtle (Chelonia mydas).
Birds: Nearly two-third of the 363 species being recorded as resident breeding birds in Sabah can be found within the Sandakan district. Moreover, some of the 90 other species that migrate to Sabah from the northern hemisphere during the winter period, and most of the further 70 species recorded around Sabahs coast (seabirds) can be sighted within the limits of the district.
The richest habitat in term of avifauna biodiversity is the lowland dipterocarp forest. A checklist of birds within Sepilok Forest Reserve records 209 resident species and 11 migrant species (cf Francis, undated - Payne, 1988). The following species being endemic to the lowland forests of Borneo are of particular interest: blue-headed pitta (Ptilocichla leucigrammica), Bornean wren-babbler (Napothera atrigularis), Bornean blue flycatcher (Cyornis superba), yellow rumped flowerpecker (Prionochilus xanthopygius), Bornean bristlehead (Pityriasis gymnocephala) and dusky munia (Lonchura fuscans).
Findings are similar within Gomantong Forest Reserve: Occurrence of the eight species of hornbills found in Borneo, great argus pheasant (Argusianus argus), crested wood partridge (Rollulus roloul) and other scenic species. To note, the presence of several colonies of thousands edible nest swiflets in the cave systems of Gomantong Forest Reserve.
Other important habitats for avifauna include the mangrove and swamp areas where some specialised and rare species occur: lesser adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus), Storms stork (Ciconia stormi), oriental darter (Anhinger melanogaster). Many other species can also be sighted there: limicols, egrets, herons, kingfishers, etc.
Mammals: Because of their size and their ecological requirements, the largest mammal species suffer a lot from human disturbances. Most of them have vanished or currently occur in small numbers and in very localised areas within Sandakan district. As for bird species, the most important mammal biodiversity occurs in LDF habitat (namely Sepilok and Gomantong Forest Reserve). A brief classification of the main species of mammals found within Sandakan district is given below.
|PRIMATES||-long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis): predominantly animals of coastal and riverine habitats, but able to adapt to exploited habitats (PMA, OPP).|
|-pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina).|
|RODENTIA||-plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus): very common, found in the gardens within Sandakan and suburbs.|
|-common porcupine (Hystrix brachyura)|
|-rats and mice (at least 25 species in Sabah)|
|CARNIVORA||-Malay badger (Mydaus javanensis)|
|-tangalung (Viverra tangalunga)|
|-common civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus)|
|-banded palm civet (Hemigalus derbyanus)|
|ARCTYODACTYLA||-bearded pig (Sus barbatus)|
|-mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus and T. napu)|
|-deer (Muntiacus muntjak and Cervus unicolor)|
All the following species are nocturnal and difficult to observe. Data on their repartition and abundance are missing, but we can suppose that some of these species are still quite common within Sandakan district:
|INSECTIVORA||-moonrat (Echinosorex gymnurus)|
|SCANDENTIA||-treeshrews (Tupaiai sp.)|
|CHIROPTERA||-41 species recorded in Sabah, 37 found in Sepilok Forest Reserve.|
|CARNIVORA||-honey bear (Helarctos malayanus)|
|-clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)|
|PHOLIDOTA||-pangolin (Manis javanica)|
These three nocturnal species are found in and around Sepilok and Gomantong Forest Reserve, as well as LLDF and PMA, but are subject to shooting.
|PRIMATES||-proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) : M, FSF. Still found in the mangroves close to Sandakan (Sibuga).|
|-red leaf monkeys (Presbytis rubicunda) and grey leaf monkey (P. hosei): M, FSF, RRF, LDF, LLDF.|
|-tarsier (Tarsius bancanus): LDF, LLDF, PMA. Nocturnal, rarely seen.|
|RODENTIA||-black-banded , ear-spot, pygmy squirrels: LDF, LLDF|
|-long-tailed porcupine (Trichys lipura): LDF, LLDF|
|CARNIVORA||-Species of carnivores are not easily seen but can survive in disturbed habitat if they are not hunted:|
|-otters (3 species) and mustelids (3 species): M, FSF, RRF, LDF,LLDF|
|-viverrids (6 species)|
|-leopard cat (Felis bengalensis)|
|PRIMATES||-orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) : RRF, LDF, LLDF. Main population in Sepilok and Gomantong F.R. Also found in LLDF, PMA and POP where this species is considered like a pest.|
|-gibbons (Hylobates muelleri): LDF, LLDF|
|-silvered leaf monkey (Presbytis cristata): mainly found in coastal habitat and along the rivers (RRF).|
|DERMOPTERA||-flying lemur (Cynocephalus variegatus): LDF|
|PROBOSCIDEA||-elephants (Elephas maximus): LDF, RF, OPP, LLDF. This species needs large territory to survive and is frequently seen into the plantations.|
|CARNIVORA||-marbled cat (Felis marmorata)|
|-flat-headed cat (Felis planiceps)|
|-bay cat (Felis badia)|
|PERRISODACTYLA||-Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). A small herd is held in captivity at Sepilok Orang-utan Rehabilitation Centre.|
|ARTIODACTYLA||-tembadau (Bos javanicus).|
Distribution and abundance of wildlife are mainly influenced by the habitat types and the extent of disturbances caused by human activities. An example of this is the displacement of wildlife habitat such as elephants. These mammals are now often seen wandering in plantation areas. The distribution of elephant in Sabah, which is concentrated mainly in the Sandakan district, is shown in Figure 4.2.
Many species of wildlife can still be found within Sandakan district, especially in and around Gomantong and Sepilok Forest Reserves, and in the undisturbed mangrove areas.
Marine mammals: Sea mammals are commonly sighted within the Sandakan district waters. The most common species seems to be Orcaella brevirostris. However, data on cetaceans are still scarce, and a detailed census would be useful. Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly sighted in and around Sandakan bay. This species of sea-mammal is nearly extinct in Borneo. Urgent measures of protection have to be taken before the small population found in the district disappears.
Figure 4.2: Distribution of Elephants in Sabah
The legal status (including the Malaysian status and the conservation status edited by IUCN) of the mammal and bird species found in Sabah is given in Davies and Payne, 1982.
Please refer to Annexes at the end of this chapter for available data.
Additional data for this chapter may be obtained from the following institution:
Wildlife Department, Sandakan
Forest Department, Sandakan
WWF-Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu and Petaling Jaya
University Malaysia Sabah (Borneo Marine Research Unit) Kota Kinabalu
Sabah Parks, Kota Kinabalu
Fisheries Department, Sandakan and Kota Kinabalu
The major threat to wildlife within the district is habitat loss and fragmentation because of the land conversion to oil palm plantation.
Biodiversity has drastically decreased in the areas designed for agriculture, but some species are still able to survive and to adapt to these new conditions of life. As a result of these drastic changes in the landscape, different species of wildlife damage the plantations and are currently identified as pests. These species include elephants, orang-utans, wild boars, porcupines and other rodents. Species considered as pests can be shot as a means of crop protection. There is an urgent need to identify suitable solutions that could allow the most threatened species to survive in the district - namely orang-utans and elephants.
Other threats to wildlife include hunting (game species: deers, wild boars), and trade (some species of birds and fresh water fish).
Most of the animal species (invertebrates or vertebrates) occurring within the district are only found in the lowland dipterocarp forest. Significant Forest Reserves containing this habitat type (mainly Sepilok and Gomantong) are of prime importance in conserving Sabah fauna and flora and maintaining the States full biological diversity.
Sandakan district coast is lined with mangroves. Mangroves sustain fishery stocks as the waters are rich in minerals and organic nutrients. Many primarily oceanic fish and crustaceans are critically dependent on estuarine and brackish waters as breeding and nursery areas for their young. The mangroves also support a variety of endangered and specialised species whose survival depends on the existence of the mangrove ecosystem. Illegal fishing and logging activities threaten this fragile ecosystem. The main reasons for logging are charcoal and wood for decorative purposes and scaffolding materials.
The major threats for the marine habitat within the district are pollution, littering, siltation and over-fishing.
Sewage originates from various human activities particularly indiscriminate dumping of raw sewage into the water, improper sewer system and from direct discharge of sewage from human settlements along the coastal areas of Sandakan. These not only pose a major health hazards to the people who use the water for recreation but also to the marine habitats.
Sewage also decreases the amount of oxygen in the water and affects the development of coral reefs. To minimise its damaging effects, the sewage should be properly treated and channelled into deep, well-flushed water.
Fertilisers and pesticides used on agricultural lands and golf course, oil, illegal desludging of ships, industrial wastes, etc usually end up in the water bodies especially during rainy season. These chemicals are detrimental to the life form of marine habitats particularly fish and other marine life. Proper use of pesticides and fertiliser and proper disposal of other industrial waste could help in reducing the amount of agricultural and industrial wastes in reaching the water bodies.
Litter or most commonly known as solid waste is one of the major problems along the Sandakan coastal areas due to the presence of the squatters in the district. At present, this is likely to be the most difficult issue this district faces due to the amount of solid waste dumped daily on the coastal areas. This not only spoils the natural beauty of the coastline, destroys the coral reefs, beaches and other marine habitats, but is also a hazard to both human and marine life. The composition of these solid wastes includes metal (cans, etc.), plastic bags, discarded fishing nets, bottles, etc.
Siltation and sedimentation are other issues that threaten the marine habitats. Suspended sediments reduce the amount of light that can pass through the water to the reefs. It also settles on the coral, smothering them and stopping new corral from growing. The problem of siltation is particularly serious in the district because of the deforestation process that is occurring up-rivers.
Overfishing and other human activities are currently responsible for a drastic depletion of the fish community. By example, the quantity, the size of fish and the diversity of species caught by fishermen are in constant diminution. Fish bombing activity that commonly occurs in the district waters is one of the major issues that this district faces. This destructive and wasteful method of fishing is not a selective way of fishing and it kills not only fish of any size and age, but also destroy the corals and any other marine life. Legislation exists to outlaw fish bombing. Educating the fishermen and providing them with viable alternatives would help address this issue.
Another issue is overfishing in shallow waters of the district that leads to the capture of young fish that are killed before they can breed. It might be advisable to define non-fishing areas in places where species breed.
TOTALLY PROTECTED SPECIES OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS
TOTALLY PROTECTED ANIMALS
|1. Sumatra Rhinoceros||(Dicerorhinus sumatrenesis)||Badak Sumatra|
|2. Orang Utan||(Pongo pygmaeus)||Orang Utan|
|3. Sun Bear||(Helarctos malayanus)||Beruang Madu|
|4. Dugong||(Dugong dugon)||Duyung|
|5. Proboscis Monkey||(Nasalis larvatus)||Monyet Bangkatan|
|6. Clouded Leopard||(Neofelis nebulosa)||Harimau Dahan|
|7. Gharial||(Tomistoma schlegeli)||Buaya Julung-julung|
|8. Green Turtle||(Chelonia mydas)||Penyu Hijau|
|9. Hawksbill Turtle||(Erelmochelys imbricata)||Penyu Sisik|
TOTALLY PROTECTED SPECIES
|1. Nepenthes Rajah spp||- Periuk Kera|
|2. Paphiopedilum spp||- Orkid Selipar|
|3. Raffiesia spp||- Raffiesia|
|4. Tetrastigma spp||- Pokok Perumah Rafflesia|
PROTECTED SPECIES OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS-LIMITED
HUNTING AND COLLECTION UNDER LICENCE
|1. Kinabalu Shrew||(Crocidura baluensis)||Cencurut Kinabalu|
|2. Dayak Roundleaf Bat||(Hipposideros dyacorum)||Kelawar Ladam-bulat Dayak|
|3. Coppery Pipistrelle||(Pipistrellus cuprosus)||Kelawar Hidung Pendek Tembaga|
|4. Glided Tube-nosed Bat||(Murina rozendaali)||Kelawar Hidung Laras Emas|
|5. Flying Lemur||(Cynocephalus variegatus)||Kubung|
|6. Slow Loris||(Nycticebus coucang)||Kongkang|
|7. Tarsier||(Tarsius bancanus)||Kera Hantu|
|8. Maroon Leaf Monkey||(Presbytis rubicunda)||Monyet Merah|
|9. Grey Leaf Monkey||(Presbytis hosei)||Monyet Kikok|
|10. Silver Leaf Monkey||(Presbytis cristata)||Monyet Kelabu|
|11. Long-tailed Macaque||(Macaca fascicularis)||Kera|
|12. Pig-tailed Macaque||(Macaca nemestrina)||Beruk|
|13. Gibbon||(Hylobates muelleri)||Kelawat|
|14. Pangolin||(Manis javanica)||Tenggiling|
|15. Giant Squirrel||(Ratufa affinis)||Tupai Kerawak Putih-kuning|
|16. Kinabalu Squirrel||(Callosciurus baluensis)||Tupai Kinabalu|
|17. Giant Tufted Ground Squirrel||(Rheithrosciurus macrotis)||Babut|
|18. Hose's Pigmy Flying Squirrel||(Petaurillus hosei)||Tupal Terbang Kecil|
|19. Temminck's Flying Squirrel||(Petinomys setosus)||Tupai Terbang Dada Putih|
|20. Horsfield's Flying Squirrel||(lomys horsfieldi)||Tupal Terbang Ekor Merah|
|21. Grey-cheeked Flying Squirrel||(Hylopeles lepidus)||Tupai Terbang Pipi Kelabu|
|22. Black Flying Squirrel||(Aeromys tephromelas)||Tupai Terbang Hitam|
|23. Smoky Flying Squirrel||(Pteromyscus pulverulentus)||Tupai Terbang Kotor|
|24. Whiskered Flying Squirrel||(Petinomys genibarbis)||Tupai Terbang Berjambang|
|25. Spotted Giant Flying Squirrel||(Petaurista elegans)||Tupai Terbang Bintang|
|26. Red Giant Flying Squirrel||(Petaurista petaurista)||Tupai terbang Merah|
|27. Thomas's Flying Squirrel||(Aeromys thomasi)||Tupai Terbang Merah|
|28. Long-tailed Porcupine||(Trichys fasciculata)||Landak Padi|
|29. Thick-spined Porcupine||(Thecurus crassispinis)||Landak Borneo|
|30 Yellow-throated Marten||(Martes flavigula)||Mengkira|
|31. Malay Weasel||(Mustela nudipes)||Pulasan Tanah|
|32. Ferret-Badger||(Melogale personata)||Pulasan Lamri|
|33. Malay Badger||(Mydaus javanensis)||Teledu|
|34. Hairy-nosed Otter||(Lutra sumatrana)||Memerang Kumis|
|35. Smooth Otter||(Lutra perspicillata)||Memerrang Licin|
|36. Oriental Small-clawed Otter||(Aonyx cinerea)||Memerang Keeil|
|37. Malay Civet||(Viverra tangalunga)||Musang Tanggalong|
|38. Otter-Civet||(Cynogale bennettii)||Musang Memerang|
|39. Binturong||(Arctictis binturong)||Musang Binturong|
|40. Small-toothed Palm Civet||(Arctogalidia trivirgata)||Musang Akar|
|41. Masked Palm Civet||(Paguma larvata)||Musang Lamri|
|42. Common Palm Civet||(Paradoxurus hermaphroditus)||Musang Pulut|
|43. Hose's Civet||(Hemigalus hosei)||Musang Hitam Pudar|
|44. Banded Palm Civet||(Hemigalus derbyanus)||Musang Belang|
|45. Banded Linsang||(Prionodon linsang)||Musang Linsang|
|46. Collared Mongoose||(Herpestes semitorquatus)||Bambun Ekor Panjang|
|47. Short-tailed Mongoose||(Herpestes brachyurus)||Bambun Ekor Pendek|
|48. Leopard Cat||(Felis bengalensis)||Kucing Batu|
|49. Marbled Cat||(Felis marmorata)||Kucing Dahan|
|50. Flat Headed Cat||(Felis planiceps)||Kucing Hutan|
|51. Bay Cat||(Felis badia)||Kucing Merah|
|52. Asian Elephant||(Elephas maximus)||Gajah|
|53. Banteng||(Bos javanicus)||Tembadau|
|54. Sei Whale||(Balanoptera borealis)||Ikan Paus Sei|
|55. Bryde's Whale||(Balanoptera edent)||Ikan Paus Bryde|
|56. Killer Whale||(Orcinus orca)||Ikan Paus Buding|
|57. Short-finned Pilot Whale||(Globicephalamacrorhynchus)||Ikan Paus Pendek Sirip|
|58. Pigmy Sperm Whale||(Kogia breviceps)||Ikan Paus Nayan|
|59. Grey Dolphin||(Grampus griseus)||Dolfin Kelabu|
|60. Bottlenose Dolphin||(Tursiops truncatus)||Dolfin Hidung Botol|
|61. Indo-Pacific Hump-backed Dolphin||(Sousa chinensis)||Dolfin Bongkok Bernie|
|62. Irrawaddy Dolphin||(Orcaella brevirostris)||Dolfin Empesut|
|63. Finless Porpoise||(Neophocaena phocaenides)||Ikan Lumba-lumba Ambu|
|64. Fraser's Dolphin||(Lagenodelhis hosei)||Dolfin Fraser|
|65. Long Snouted Spinner Dolphin||(Stenella longirostra)||Dolfin Hidung Mancung|
|66. Estuarine Crocodile||(Crocodylus porosus)||Buaya|
|67. False Gharial||(Tomistoma schlegeli)||Buaya Julung-julung|
|68. Monitor Lizard||(All varanus species)||Biawak|
|69. Reticulated Python||(Python reticulatus)||Ular Sawa Panjang|
|70. Blood Python||(Python curtus)||Ular Sawa Darah|
|71. King Cobra||(Ophiophagus hannah)||Ular Tedung Selar|
|72. Forest Tortoise||(Tetsudo emys)||Kura-kura Bukit|
|73. Asian Giant Turtle||(Orlitia borneonsis)||Juku-Juku Besar|
|74 Christimas Island Frigatebird||(Fregata andrewsi)||Simbang Pulau Christmas|
|75. Lesser Frigatebird||(Fregata ariel)||Simbang Kecil.|
|CORMORANTS AND DARTERS|
|76. Great Cormorant||(Phalacrocorax cargo) Dendang Air|
|77. Oriental Darter||(Anhinga metanogaster) Kosa|
|HERONS AND BITTERNS|
|78. Great-billed Heron||(Ardea sumatrana)||Bangau Bakau|
|79. Purple Heron||(Ardea purpurea)||Bangau Paya|
|80. Grey Heron||(Ardea cinerea)||Seriap|
|81. Reef Egret||(Egretta sacra)||Bangau Laut|
|82. Little Egret||(Egretta garzetta)||Bangau Kecil|
|83. Chinese Egret||(Egretta eulophotes)||Bangau Cina|
|84. Intermediate Egret||(Egretta intermedia)||Bangau Kerbau|
|85. Little Heron||(Butorides striatus)||Pucong Keladi|
|86 Black-crowned Night-Heron||(Nycticorax nycticorax)||Pucong Kuak|
|87. Rufous Night Heron||(Nycticorax caledonicus)||Pucong Malam|
|88. Malayan Night Heron||(Gorsachius melanolophus)||Pucong Rimau|
|89. Yellow Bittern||(Ixobrychus sinensis)||Pucong Merah|
|90. Schrenck's Bittern||(Ixobrychus eurhythmus)||Pucong Gelam|
|91. Black Bittern||(Ixobrychus flavicollis)||Pucong Hitam|
|92. Cinnamon Bittern||(Ixobrychus cinnamomeus)||Pucong Bendang|
|93. Storm's Stork||(Cicona stormi)||Botak Storm|
|94. Lessers Adjutant Stork||(Leptoptilos javanicus)||Botak Kecil|
|95. Black-headed Ibis||(Threskiornis melanocephalus)||Sekendi Kepala Hitam|
|HAWKS AND EAGLES|
|96. Bat Hawk||(Machaeramphus alcinus)||Helang Malam|
|97. Jerdon Baza||(Avicedo jerdoni)||Helang Baza|
|98. Crested Honey-Buzzard||(Pernis ptilorhynchus)||Helang Lebah|
|99. Brahminy Kite||(Haliastur indus)||Helang Merah|
|100. Black Kite||(Milvus migrans)||Helang Kembara Hitam|
|101. Black Eagle||(Ictinaetus malayensis)||Helang Hitam|
|102. Lesser Fish-Eagle||(Ichthyophaga humilis)||Helang Kangok|
|103. Grey-headed Fish-Eagle||(Ichthyophaga ichtyaetus)||Helang Kepala Kelabu|
|104. Kinabalu Serpent-Eagle||(Spilornis kinabaluensis)||Helang Kinabalu|
|105. Crested Serpent-Eagle||(Spilornis cheela)||Helang Berjambul|
|106. Besra||(Accipiter virgatus)||Helang Pipit|
|197. Crested Goshawk||(Accipiter trivirgatus)||Helang Putih|
|108. Wallace's Hawk-Eagle||(Spizaetus nanus)||Helang Selat|
|109. Osprey||(Pandion haliacetus)||Helang TiramFALCONS|
|110. White-fronted Falconet||(Microhierax latifros)||Falko Dahi Putih|
|111. Peregrine Falcon||(Falcon peregrinus)||Falko Belalang|
|112. Common Falconet||(Microhicrax caerulescens)||Falko Biasa|
|113. Oriental hobby||(Falco severus)||Falko Timor|
|114. Eurasian Kestrel||(Falco tinnunculus)||Falko Serani|
|115. Tabon Scrubfowl||(Megapodius cumingii)||Tambun|
|PARTRIDGES AND PHEASANT|
|116. Blue-breasted Quail||(Coturnix chinensis)||Pikau|
|117. Long-billed Partridge||(Rhizothera longirostris)||Siul Selanting|
|118. Ferruginous Partridge||(Caloperdix oculea) Sang||Seruk Rimba|
|119. Red-breasted Partridge||(Arborophila hyperythra)||Siul Dada Merah|
|120. Chestnus-necklaced Partridge||(Arborophilia charltonii)||Sang Serok|
|121. Black Wood-Partridge||(Melanoperdix nigra)||Siul Bertam|
|122. Crested Partridge||(Rollulus rouloul)||Siul Berjambul|
|123. Crimson-headed Partridge||(Haematortyx sanguiniceps)||Siul Kepala Merah|
|124. Crested Fireback||(Lophura ignita)||Ayam Pegar|
|125. Crestless Fireback||(Lophura erythopthalma)||Merah Mata|
|126. Bulwer's Pheasant||(Lophura bulweri)||Pakiak|
|127. Bornean Peacock-Pheasant||(Polyplectron schleiermacheri)||Merak Pongsu|
|128. Great Argus||(Argusianus argus)||Kuang Raya|
|129. Malaysian Plover||(Cliaradrius peronii)||Rapang Pasir|
|SANDPIPERS AND SNIPES|
|130. Far Eastern Curlew||(Numenius madagascariensis)||Kedidi Timor|
|131. Nordmann's Greenshank||(Tringa guttifer)||Kedidi Kaki Hijau Berbintik|
|132. Asian Dowitcher||(Limnodromus semipalmatus)||Kedidi Dada Merah|
|133. Beach Thick-knee||(Esacus magnirostris)||Burung Lutut Tebal|
|SKUAS, GULLS AND TURNS|
|134., Black-naped Tern||(Sterna sumatrana)||Camar Tengkuk Hitam|
|135. Bridled Tern||(Sterna anaethetus)||Camar Batu|
|136. Chinese-crested Tern||(Sterna bernsteini)||Camar Cina Berjambul|
|PIGEONS AND DOVES|
|137. Large-Green Pigeon||(Treron capellei)||Lengguak|
|138. Cinnamon-headed Green-Pigeon||(Treron fulvicollis)||Punai Bakau|
|139. Black-naped Fruit-Dove||(Ptilinopus melanospila)||Punai Tengkuk Hitam|
|140. Grey Imperial Pigeon||(Ducula pickeringi)||Merpati Raja Kelabu|
|141. Metalic Wood-Pigeon||(Columbia vitiensis)||Merpati Kayu|
|142. Emerald Dove||(Chalcophaps indica)||Punai Tanah|
|143. Nicobar Pigeon||(Caloenas nicobarica)||Punai Emas|
|144. Blue-naped Parrot||(Tanygnathus lucionensis)||Bayan Tengkuk Biru|
|145. Blue-rumped Parrot||(Psittinus cyanurus)||Bayan Puling|
|146. Long-tailed Parakeet||(psittacula longicauda)||Bayan Nuri|
|147. Blue-crowned Hanging-Parrot||(Loriculus galgulus)||BayanKecil/Serindit|
|CUCKOOS, MALKOHAS AND COUCALS|
|148. Violet Cuckoo||(Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus)||Sewah Rembah|
|149. Short-toed Coucal||(Centropus rectunguis)||But-But Jari Pendek.|
|150. Sunda Ground-Cuckoo||(Carpococcyx radiceus)||Sewah Tanah|
|151 Bay Owl||(Phodilus badius)||Jampuk Pantai|
|152. Reddish Scops-owl||(olus rufescens)||Hantu Merah|
|153. Mountain Scops-owl||(Otus Spilocephalus)||Hantu Gunung|
|154. Collared Scops-owl||(Otus lempii)||Hantu Reban|
|155. Mantanani Scops-owl||(Otus mantananensis)||Hantu Mantanani|
|156. Barred Eagle-Owl||(Bubo sumatrana)||Hantu Bubu|
|157. Buffy Fish-Owl||(Ketupa ketupu)||Hantu Kuning|
|158. Collared Owlet||(Glaucidium brodiei)||Hantu Kecil|
|159. Brown Boobook||(Ninox scutulata)||Hantu Betemak|
|160. Brown Wood-Owl||(Strix leptogrammica)||Hantu Punggor|
|161. Large Frogmouth||(Batrachostomus auritus)||Segan Besar|
|162. Bonaparte's Nightjar||(Caprimulgus concretus)||Tukang Bonarparte|
|163. Waterfall Swifts||(Hydrochous gigas)||Layang-Layang Hantu|
|164. Edible-nest Swiftlet||(Aerodramus fuciphagus)||Layang-Layang Gua|
|165. Black-nest Swiftlet||(Aerodramus maximus)||Layang-Layang Padi|
|166. Brown-backed Needletail||(Hirundapus giganteus)||Layang-Layang Besar|
|167. Wrinkled Hornbill||(Rhyticeros corrugatus)||Enggang Berkedut|
|168. Wreathed Hornbill||(Rhyticeros undulatus)||Engaang Gunung|
|169. White-crowned Hornbill||(Berenicornis comatus)||Engang Jambul Putih|
|170. Bushy-crested Hornbill||(Annorrhinus galeritus)||Enggang Belukar|
|171. Black Hornbill||(Anthracoceros malayanus)||Enggang Gatal Birah|
|172. Pied Hornbill||(Anthracoceros coronatus)||Enggang Tangling|
|173. Rhinoceros Hornbill||(Buceros rhinoceros)||Enggang Badak|
|174. Helmeted Hornbill||(Rhinoplax vigil)||Enggang Terbang Mentua|
|175. Malaysian Honeyguide||(Indicator archipelagicus)||Gembala Lebah|
|176. Speckled Piculet||(Picumnus innominatus)||Belatok Belang|
|177. Rufous Woodpecker||(Celeus brachyurus)||Belatok Kecil|
|178. White-bellied Woodpecker||(Dryocopus javensis)||Belatok Gajah|
|179. Giant Pitta||(Pitta caerulea)||Pacat Besar|
|180. Fairy Pitta||(Pitta nympha)||Pacat|
|181. Blue-headed Pitta||(Pitta baudi)||Pacat Kepala Merah|
|182. Blue-banded Pitta||(Pitta arquata)||Pacat|
|183. Banded Pitta||(Pitta guajana)||Pacat Bukit|
|184. Blue-winged Pitta||(Pitta moluccensis)||Pacat Sayap Biru|
|185. Hooded Pitta||(Pitta sordida)||Pacat Gembala Pelandok|
|186. Straw-headed Bulbul||(Pycnonotus zeylanicus)||Barau-barau|
|187. Hook-billed Butbul||(Setornis criniger)||Merbah|
|188. Everett's Trush||(Zoothera everetti)||Murai Everett|
|189. White-crowned Forktail||(Enicurus leschenaulti)||Murai Cegar Belukar|
|190. White-rumped Shama||(Copsychus malabaricus)||Murai Rimba|
|191. Magpie Robin||(Copsychus saulari)||Murai Kampung|
|192. White-chested Babbler||(Trichastoma rostratum)||Burung Telanjuk|
|193. Ferruginous Babbler||(Trcihastoma bicolor)||Rimba Sampah|
|194. Grey-breasted Babbler||(Malacopteron albogulare)||Rimba Dahan|
|195. Bornean Wren-Babbler||(Ptilocichla leucogrammica)||Rimba Borneo|
|196. Sunda Blue Flycatcher||(Cyornis caerulata)||Sambar Biru Sunda|
|197. Malaysian Blue Flycatcher||(Cyornis turcosa)||Sambar Biru Malaysia|
|198. Asian Paradise Flycather||(Terpsiphone paradise)||Sambar Ekor Panjang|
|199. Mangrove Whistler||(Pachycephala cinerea)||Sambar Siul Belukar|
|200. Brown-backed Flowerpecker||(Dicaeum everetti)||Sepah Puteri Gunung|
|STARLING AND MYNAS|
|201. Hill Myna||(Gracula religiosa)||Tiong Mas|
|202. Bornean Bristlehead||(Pityriasis gymnocephala)||Burung Jambul|
|JAYS AND CROWS|
|203. Black Magpie||(Platysmurus leucopterus)||Murai Hitam|
|204. Short-tailed Green Magpie||(Cissa thalassina)||Murai Hijau|
|205. Rajah Brooke's Birdwing||(Trogonoptera brookiana)||Kupu-Kupu Rajah|
|206. Common Birdwing||(All Troides species)||Kupu-kupu (semua spesis Troides)|
|1. Caryota spp||- Botu|
|2. Ceratolobus spp||- Rotan|
|3. Corypha spp||- Gabang|
|4. Cycadaceae||- Paku Laut|
|5. Cytoceae||- Paku|
|6. Zingiberaccae||- Halia Hutan|
|7. Nenga spp||- Pinang Hutan|
|8. Nepenthaccae||- Periuk Kera|
|9. Orchidaceac||- Anggerek Hutan|
|10. Podocarpus spp (Commercial spp)||- Lampias|
|11. Rhododendron spp||- Mawar Hutan|
|12. Livistonia sp||- Silad|
|13. Arenga sp||- Polod|
(Section 2, 25(2))
PROTECTED SPECIES OF ANIMALS FOR
WHICH HUNTING LICENCE IS REQUIRED
|1. Large Flying Fox||(Pteropus vampyrus)||Keluang Bakau|
|2. Island Flying Fox||(Pteropus hyponielanus)||Keluang Pulau|
|3. Common Porcupine||(Hystrix brachyura)||Landak Raya|
|4. Bearded Pig||(Sus barbatus)||Babi Hutan|
|5. Lesser Mousedeer||(Tragulusjavatticus)||Pelandok|
|6. Greater Mousedeer||(Tragulus napu)||Napoh|
|7. Common Barking Deer||(Muntiacus muntjac)||Kijang|
|8. Borneon Yellow Muntjac||(Muntiacus atherodes)||Kijang|
|9. Sambar Deer||(Cervus unicolor)||Rusa|