6.   NATURAL RESOURCES

6.1. Existing Land Uses

The major land use categories recognised at the map scale 1:25,000 within the coastal zones and as mapped on Map 6: Existing Land Uses in Annex B are:

6.1.1. Built-up and Associated Areas

Built-up and Associated Areas mapped as settlement and growth centres such as towns, which generally are distributed at the coastal fringes facing the harbours, and settlement centres that exist within the large oil palm plantations. Among the important criteria in distinguishing this major category include the existence of infrastructure, the existence of public buildings and the provision of utilities for the population.

6.1.2. Horticulture

Horticulture has a wide and extensive sub-category that includes:

Mixed Horticulture defines as a typical diversified garden cultivation found in a haphazard fashion around a dwelling. The essential basis is the settlement dwelling with emphasis on the production of diversified crops for family needs with the possibility of small surpluses being sold locally. Included are mixed vegetable, yams, tapioca, chillies, pineapples, fruit trees, bananas, papayas, coconuts, etc. The most common location is along roads and riverbanks. Frequently this type forms buffer strips between estate and smallholding crops.

Market gardening areas are designated for commercial production of fresh vegetables. The pattern is that of intense neatness and use with individual units being small. Most market garden areas occur in or near large urban centres.

Government Agricultural Stations defined as areas that have wide activities which may include demonstration plots, field verification trials, research into newly introduced crops, production of planting materials and stock seeds or multiplication of stock materials for research, hybridisation and large scale production. The outline of an agricultural station is usually based on available maps since some stations may still have land reserves that are as yet undeveloped.

6.1.3. Perennial and Tree Crops

Perennial and Tree Crops includes crops at all stages of growth under various forms of management. The crops under this category are oil palm, cocoa, coconut, rubber, coffee, orchards, bananas, fish and hyacinth ponds, pineapple and sago palm.

Oil Palm . Mostly on the east coasts of Sabah i.e. Sandakan Peninsula, Kinabatangan and Segama Valleys, Dent Peninsula, Tungku, Lahad Datu, Silam, Kunak, Semporna, Balung, Tawau, Merotai and Kalabakan. Some are grown in the West Coast i.e. Pitas, Kota Marudu and Beaufort. Oil palm small holders command lucrative price of Crude Palm Oil due to the demand for Fresh Fruit Bunches by the existing mills. The types and sizes of oil palm plantation distribution are as shown in Table 33 .

Table 33: Types and Size of Oil Palm Plantations

Location

Type And Size Of Plantation

Sandakan Peninsula

Mostly SLDB* scheme and some smallholders and medium estates

Dent Peninsula

Mostly FELDA** Scheme

Tungku

Large plantations and some smallholders and medium estates

Silam

Mixed large and medium estates and smallholders and SLDB Scheme

Sapi Loka Segaliud

Large Plantations

Kunak

Mostly large plantations, some medium estates and a little smallholders

Semporna

Mostly smallholders and SLDB Scheme

Balung

Mostly SLDB Scheme and mixed large to small estates

Tawau

Mostly medium estates. Some smallholders

Merotai

Mostly large plantations

Kalabakan

Mostly FELDA Scheme

Kinabatangan and Segama

Mostly large plantations. Some medium estates. Few smallholders.

Beaufort, Pitas and Kota Marudu

SLDB Schemes

Notes: * SLDB - Sabah Land Development Board ** FELDA – Federal Land Development Agency

Cocoa: Mostly in Tawau, Semporna and Kunak coasts. Some in Sandakan Peninsula and Lahad Datu coasts. Most of cocoa crops are planted in medium estates, and some smallholdings. Since cocoa cultivation as a mono-crop is not profitable at the current bean market price, particularly for the smallholdings, this crop is maintained in a mixed-crop system where crop diversification is economically viable.

Coconut: Mostly in Semporna tip, Dent Peninsula coasts and Kudat Peninsula tip. Some in Kuala Penyu, Kota Marudu plain and on small islands around Banggi Island. Coconut is a smallholder crop. Most of the growers live on a subsistence earning.

Rubber: Mostly on the foot slopes of Crocker Range on the West Coasts extending from Kota Belud southward to Sipitang. Some found in Sandakan Peninsula, Tenom Plain and Kota Marudu Plain. Mostly small holders and some medium estates. The smallholders are subsistence farmers.

Padi: Mostly found on the river plains of the West Coasts i.e. Papar, Penampang, Tuaran, Kota Belud, Sikuati and Kota Marudu. Most padi fields are smaller than 2 hectares. The rain-fed padi is cultivated by subsistence farmers, while for the irrigated fields, the double cropping yields of padi (3 to 5 tons per hectare) are relatively profitable.

Diversified Crops : Mainly annual crops such as maize, tapioca, bananas, yams, sweet potatoes, tobacco, water melon, etc. The size of the field make it difficult to interpret the actual crop, especially when the same crop maybe present at different stages of maturity within a mixed crop area which may also contain areas of fallow.

Shifting Cultivation : Described the distribution of clearings (often overgrown with scrubs and coarse grasses which are indications of fallow) in a disorganised and haphazard manner with very irregular shape. The areas are normally found in Forest Reserves and very commonly distributed on the steep slopes of high hills and mountains.

6.1.4. Grassland: Lalang, Unimproved coarse pasture and/or scrub grassland.

The general appearance of this category is grassland and areas are only included when shrubs and trees (generally below 5 meters) cover less than 50% of the area. When the scrub component covers more than 50% of the area, it is designated as Scrub Forest and is put under category Forest land.

6.1.5. Forest Land

Forest: All dryland forests (primary and secondary forest or high belukar above 5 meters in height) are included in this sub-category.

Scrub Forest : Consists of areas with more than 50% covered by shrubs, bushes and young or dwarf trees having a height of less than approximately 5 meters. It includes low belukar or secondary growth, which is in the first stage of regeneration of mature forest.

Recently Cleared Land : These are recently cleared areas where it is impossible to determine the future land use. A very clean appearance as well as the presence of felled trees and traces of burning recognise these areas.

Cultivated Forest : This unit consists of introduced pulp wood forest, which may attain a height similar to the primary dipterocarp forest when mature. Because the trees are cultivated like plantation crops, the tree crowns appear even in growth and the canopy has smooth texture when view from aerial view.

6.1.6. Swamp, Marshlands and Wetland Forest

This category includes all poorly drained land exhibiting seasonal or permanent waterlogging. Wetland Grass, Heath and Forest Associations (including Mangrove, Nipah and Gelam) occur in this category, as well as Wetland Forest areas which has been recently cut-over.

6.2. Soil Classification

The Soil Classifications in Sabah have been described according to the FAO/UNESCO Legend and divided into three levels: Major Soil Groupings, Soil Unit and Soil Family. There are 13 Major Soil Groupings, 39 Soil Units and 102 soil families.

For the purpose of mapping the soils of Sabah, the dominant soil units were grouped together within landscaped units called Soil Associations that have characteristic patterns of landform or terrain classes and parent materials. There are 51 Soil Associations defined and mapped at 1:250,000 scale. (Acres et al., 1975).

Landforms have been broadly defined as being residual or depositional and expressed in terms of relief, form and areas extend. Relief includes both absolute (altitude above sea level) and relative relief which is the difference in altitude between valley bottom and hill crest.

Residual landform includes mountains and hills. Mountains are characterised by absolute relief greater than 300 m and by steep or very steep slopes greater than 25 0. Hills have absolute relief of less than 300 m and their main groups are differentiated in terms of relative relief and slopes. Steep hills are hills of high relief and steep slopes; Moderate hills are hills of moderate relief and moderate slopes and low hills are hills of low relief and gentle slopes. The amplitude of the sloping terrain are defined in Table 34 below.

Table 34: Terrain Classes

Terrain Classes

Examples of Soil Associations

Amplitude (meters)

Very low hills

Lungmanis, Semporna

0-15

Low hills

Silabukan, Rumidi, Sipit

15-30

Moderate hills

Kalabakan, Kretam, Tengah Nipah, Dalit, Dagat, Apas

60-150

High Hills

Kennedy Bay, Beruang

150 - 300

Very high hills

Gomanting, Lokan, Bang

300-600

Mountains

Bidu-bidu, Mentapok, Meliau

>600

Note: Depositional landforms include terraces, plateaux, floodplains, swamps and beaches.

Parent materials of the soils found in Sabah consists of coralline limestone, beach deposits, alluvium (recent , subrecent and old); sedimentary rocks ( shales, mudstone and sandstone); igneous rocks (intermediate, basic and ultrabasic) and volcanic rocks. Parent material basically and distinctly determine both the physical as well as the chemical characteristics and properties of the soil. Details of parent materials in Sabah are shown in Table 35 .

Table 35: Main Parent Materials of Soils in Sabah

GROUP

SOIL DISTRIBUTION/CHARACTERISTICS

1.

Alluvium

Soils derived from recent alluvium and on flat land (e.g. the Tuaran, Kinabatangan associations) are more fertile than sub-recent and older alluvium (e.g. the Sook, Brantian and Kepayan associations) which is developed on terraces.

2.

Sandstone/Mudstone

Soils derived from sandstone/mudstone are the most extensive in Sabah but vary widely in fertility (e.g. the Lungmanis, Silabukan and Kalabakan association have a higher nutrient status than the Dalit, Lokan, Crocker and Maliau associations).

3.

Limestone

Soil associaitions on limestone are limited in extent in Sabah (e.g. the Semporna and Gomantong associations) and are generally shallow and well-drained.

4.

Acid Igneous Rocks

Limited to the summit zone of Mount Kinabalu and a few lower areas in the upper Sugut drainage. Unsuitable for agriculture.

5.

Intermediate Igneous

These rocks occur in the Tawau and Lahad Datu areas. The soils are unsuitable for agriculture.

6.

Basic Igneous

Extensive in distribution with soils of variable characteristics and fertility. Includes steep mountains (e.g. Mentapok association) and lava flows (e.g. Table association at Tawau).

7.

Ultrabasic

Scattered through northern, central and south-eastern Sabah. Soils are rich in metals, with relatively low silica content, and unsuitable for agriculture.

Source: LRDMOD, 1975

6.3. Soil Suitability

Land comprises the physical environment including climate, relief, soils, hydrology and vegetation to the extent that these influences potential for Land use.

Most of the land within the coastal zone is characterised by the existence of rolling to undulating country where the hill slopes are within the range 6 to 20 degrees. Land with slopes within the range 20 to 25 degrees is relatively limited in distribution. The soils developed here are generally deep (above 120 centimetres) with favourable nutrient and moisture retention capacities. This land is suitable for agricultural development.

The land with terrain where the hillslopes are steeper than 25 degrees, are characterised by the existence of shallow (below 75 centimetres) soils which are very susceptible to erosion and to water stress during dry season. Here, the medium for root growth and for anchorage is severely limited. This land is considered not suitable for agricultural development. The distribution of unsuitable land for agriculture is limited to the Bengkoka Peninsula and Labuk-Sugut and Paitan.

The land where the soils are purely composed of coarse sand (coarse sand fraction, 1-2 millimetres) is generally not suitable for agricultural development because of very low nutrient and water retention capabilities. However, where the soils are characterised by the presence of fine sand (fine sand fraction, 50 microns to 1 millimetre), the land is potentially suitable for market gardening and for diversified annual crops. At a map scale of 1:250,000, the two textural classes cannot be differentiated, but are treated as a single mapping unit. This land is limited to the coastal strips of the west coasts and the Keningau-Sook Plain.

The land where the soils are permanently waterlogged (not feasible to drain), with deep (>150 centimetres) overlying peat layer, and where the soils are prone to brackish water intrusions, are not suitable for agricultural development. This land is distributed in Klias Peat Swamp, Labuk Estuary, Kinabatangan Estuary, and Segama Estuary.

In general, the land within the Coastal Zone (including the existing conservation forests) consists of soils whose characteristics and properties conform to the requirements of most of the agricultural crops. This land is therefore generally suitable for agricultural development (after excluding the mangrove swamps and the deep peat swamps). However, the choice of agricultural crops for this land is determined by the local climatic conditions, feasibility to drain the water, waterlogged alluvial soils, and by the moisture and nutrient retentively of the soils.

The agriculture capabilities of the soils based on their respective limitations are presented in Table 36 below.

Table 36: Agriculture Capability Assessment Related to Soil Associations

Soil Association

Description

Agriculture Capability

Weston

Tidal swamp

Very low or no capability to support agricultural crops.

Usukan and Tanjung Aru

Beach sand deposits

Low capability to support vegetables and cash crops cultivation. Requires high levels of capital (fertiliser) and management inputs.

Tuaran and Kinabatangan

Alluvium

High capability to support a wide range of agricultural crops. Requires medium level of capital (drainage) and management inputs.

Sapi

Alluvium and peat

Potentially capable to support oil palm where the land is raised above sea level. Requires very high levels of capital (drainage) and management inputs.

Brantian

Raised alluvium

Medium capability to support oil palm, cocoa, coconut, fruit trees and cash crops with optimum capital and management inputs.

Rumidi, Lungmanis, Tengah Nipah, Silabukan, Kalabakan, Kretam,

Sipit

Soils derived from mixed sedimentary rocks

High to very high capability to support a wide range of agricultural crops including oil palm. Proven to support oil palm yield of 26 to 28 tons per hectare per year of Fresh Fruit Bunches, with optimum capital and management input.

Klias

Peat Swamp

Not capable to support any agricultural crop. Exception is raised land within the Kinabatangan Flood Plain is potentially capable to support oil palm with very high capital (drainage) and management inputs.

Tungku

Calcareous alluvium

High capability to support coconut, cocoa and oil palm cultivation.

Semporna

Soils derived from coralline limestone

Soils deeper than 75 centimetres highly capable to support oil palm, cocoa and coconut. Shallow soils capable to support vegetables and cash crops.

Table

Soils derived from basalt

High capability to support wide range of agricultural crops. Proven to support cocoa yield of 2.5 to 3 tons dried beans per hectare per year.

Others

Skeletal or very shallow soils

Very susceptible to sheet erosion and low to very low capability to support agricultural crops.

The basic soil maps showing the nature, location and extent of the soils are grouped in soil associations and form the basis for the soil resource maps which give an interpretation with regard to agricultural crop performance. They present groupings of soils are designed to show suitability for agricultural use are based on the limitations assumed by various soil characteristics such as drainage, nutrient status, topography, soil depth, peat depth and texture. It has also been assumed that a moderately high degree of agriculture can be practised and within the capability of the average farmer. If some of the limitations can be ameliorated at an acceptable economic margin, only the continuing limitations are graded.

For establishing soil suitability, five soil groups with differing degrees of limitation for agriculture were recognised by the Land Capability Classification of Sabah (LRDMOD, 1976) and are shown here as Table 37 and in mapped form as Map 7: Soil Suitability in Annex B. Class 1 is shown on the map in combination with Class 2 given its limited size.

Table 37: Soil Suitability Groups for Agriculture


SOIL SUITABLITY

SOIL ASSOCIATIONS

MAIN FEATURES

1.

No limitation

Bingkor

Deep, well-drained soils; good reserves of moisture and inherently fertile or responsive to fertilisers. Suitable for a wide range of crops. Occupies 0.1% of Sabah’s land area.

2.

Few minor limitations

Binalik, Labau, Binkor, Brantian, Tapang, Semporna, Lungmanis, Table, Silabukan,

Soils exhibiting one or more of the following features: poor drainage; rocky between 0.5 and 1.2 m of the soil surface; extremely coarse texture; peat layer to a depth of 0.5 m; slopes within the range 5 - 15 o. Suitable for a moderate range of crops. Occupies 7.5% of Sabah’s land area.

3.

One serious limitation

Tuaran, Kinabatangan, Karamuak, Brantian, Tungku, Orchid, Rumidi, Sipit, Kalabakan, Dalit, Tengah Nipah, Kretam, Beruang, Dagat, Bang

Soil exhibiting one of the following features: slopes within the range 15 - 25 o; peat layer 0.5 to 1.2 m in depth; very poorly drained (sometimes swampy); very poor structure; rocky at less than 0.5 m depth; acute plant nutrient deficiencies. Requires very careful management. Occupies 19.5% of Sabah’s land area.

4.

More than one serious limitation

Usukan, Tanjung Aru, Sapi, Kepayan, Sook, Sinarun, Tawai, Apas, Lokan

Soil exhibiting one or more of the following features: shallow soils on strongly sloping sites; shallow and with acute plant nutrient deficiencies; salinity; permanent swampy conditions. Marginal land & normally unsuitable for agriculture. Occupies 10.2% of Sabah’s land area.

5.

Very serious limitations

Weston, Klias, Sipitang, Pinosuk, Keneddy Bay, Tiger, Gomantong, Lokan, Bidu-bidu, Mentapok, Tinagat, Malubuk, Wullersdorf, Gumpal, Crocker, Maliau, Serudong, Trusmadi, Kinabalu

Soils exhibit any of the following features: slopes predominantly greater than 25 o; extremely stony and rocky, toxic levels of certain elements; peat layer to a depth of more than 1.2 m. Unsuitable for agriculture. Occupies 62.7% of Sabah’s land area.

Source: LRDMOD, 1976

6.4. Existing Marine Uses

6.4.1. Fishing Grounds

The fishing grounds in Sabah ( Map 8: Fishing Grounds in Annex B) can be divided into three main zones: west coast (South China Sea), Kudat (South China Sea and Sulu Sea) and East Coast (Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea). Its 1600-km coastline fringed with vast areas of coral reefs, sea grass communities, mangroves, estuaries, and its diverse aquatic ecosystems have one of the richest diversity of marine life in the Indo Pacific region. Fishing grounds limited to the continental shelf is estimated roughly about 30,000 nm 2 (102,000 km 2), i.e. 9,000 square nautical miles on the East Coast and 21,000 nautical miles on the West Coast.

In general most of the fishing activities are concentrated in the coastal waters within the 30 nautical mile zone which sustains both traditional and commercial fisheries. On the other hand, the offshore waters (beyond the 30 nautical mile zone) are at present still under-exploited because of the intensive capital investment and fishing technology involved. The extensive coral reefs and shoals in offshore areas along the west coast, Kudat and Semporna also has good potential for the future development of offshore sea ranching, commercial fishing and eco-tourism activities (e.g. sport fishing).

A significant portion of the inshore waters are trawlable in nature, with substrates ranging from soft corals, mixture of mud-sand to muddy bottoms. While the untrawlable areas, characterised by the presence of extensive coral reefs and rocky shoal patches, were found off Semporna, some parts along the west coast and off the northern portion of Kudat. These areas are important fishing grounds for many types of both commercial and traditional gears. For purse seiners, the main fishing grounds are mainly off Semporna, Lahad Datu and certain areas along the west coast, where the target species are mainly coastal tunas and small pelagics ( mackerels, round scads, scads ).

There are five main shrimp fishing grounds in Sabah, i.e., Brunei Bay, along the upper west coast (between Tuaran and Kota Belud), Marudu Bay, Labuk Bay and Tawau. These areas are located within the inshore coastal areas and the 50 meter depth tends to define the outer limit of commercially viable shrimp trawling operations. On the east coast, most of the important trawling areas are in Tawau and between Pulau Tambisan and north of Sandakan (Marchesa Bay and Labuk Bay). The fishing grounds along the east coast are rather limited due to their close proximity to international waters. On the west coast, the trawlable grounds are more extensive, ranging from the Brunei Bay up to the Kudat region. Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems and are reported to be critical to the life cycles of most marine fauna. High shrimp catch rates were often observed in most areas adjacent to extensive mangrove swamps and estuaries (e.g. Labuk Bay, Brunei Bay, Marudu Bay).

The trawlable portion of the west coast continental shelf edge (depth between 80-200 meters) is presently underexploited. Among the resources found in the area are mainly small pelagics (carangids and scombrids) and various demersal species. Limited fishing in the area are presently being carried out by some purse seiners based in Kota Kinabalu. The economic viability of exploiting this area is still uncertain. Due to limited commercial trawling activity in the area, there is insufficient data (catch and effort) to carry out a thorough evaluation of the biomass and biology of available fisheries resources.

The physical and oceanographic features of the Palawan Trench located off the west coast makes it a potential fishing ground for oceanic tunas. Available data from past fishing operations indicated that both bigeye ( Thunnus obesus ) and yellowfin ( Thunnus albacares ) tunas are abundant and widely distributed in the area. The relatively shallow waters and numerous coral reefs and shoals found in the southern portion of the Spratly Islands (e.g. Ardasier Bank near Pulau Layang-layang) was found to be very rich in fisheries resources. Past experimental handline operations had indicated good catch rates of many commercial value species (snapper, grouper, wrass, trevally, barracuda). Acoustic surveys also indicated high fish biomass especially between the 100-200 meter isodepth, which consisted mainly of small pelagics.

6.4.2. Fishing Units

Coastal fisheries are defined as to all fishing activities confined within 30 nautical miles of the coast, where fishing vessels that operate within this zone are not greater than 70 GRT in size. While deep sea fisheries are defined as fishing operations carried out by large vessels (beyond 70 GRT in size) beyond the 30 nautical mile zone. Deep sea fishing are mainly carried out by purse seiners, trawlers and longliners.

The commercial fisheries comprised of large-scale fishing operations using various types of modern gears (e.g. trawlnets, purse seines, gillnets), which is better organized, more capital intensive and accounts for greater income as opposed to traditional fisheries involving various traditional gears (misc. traps, hook & lines, liftnets) which is much smaller, dispersed and often fragmented in organization, high labour intensive and low in capital investment. The operators involved are artisanal fishermen who operated non-motorised or small boats.

Sabah has the a large traditional fishing fleet, i.e. 86 percent for non-powered boats and 41 percent for outboard engine boats. The main gears are liftnets ( selambau), hook and lines and other static gears (e.g. traps). However, for inboard engine boats, the percentage is rather low (14 percent of the national commercial fishing fleet size). The fishing fleet breakdown is given in Table 38 and Table 39 .

Table 38: Licensed fishing fleet by GRT (gross tonnage), Sabah 1996

Non

Powered

Outboard

Inboard engine boats GRT category

Total

Unknown

GRT

< 10

10-20

20-25

25-40

40-70

> 70

Total

Inboard

2,557

4,065

986

1,020

635

178

337

52

9

3,214

9,836

Table 39: Licensed fishing fleet by gear type, Sabah 1996

Gear group

Gillnet

Trawl net

Hook & line

Seine net

Lift net

Others

Total

Sabah

4,209

1,414

2531

195

306

1,181

9,836

6.4.3. Fishermen Population

It is estimated that there are about 19,819 people involved in fulltime fishing. Most of the fishermen population is concentrated around the Sandakan - Beluran, Semporna, Kota Kinabalu - Tuaran, Kudat, Kota Belud and Tawau districts. On the west coast and Kudat regions, the percentage of commercial fishermen is rather low with the majority involved in traditional fishing. On the east coast, about 59% of the fishermen population are involved in commercial fishing activities. The number of part-time fishermen (including sport fishermen) was estimated about 7,000 persons while the number of the transient population involved in fishing is unknown and could run into a few thousands. The transient population involved in fishing activities is mostly concentrated in Kudat and along the east coast of Sabah, especially in Semporna, Tawau and Sandakan.

6.4.4. Marine Fish Landings

The term demersal refer to fish and invertebrates that spend most of their adult life on or near the sea bottom. The demersal assemblage found in Sabah waters is typical of bottom faunal communities in predominantly soft substrates of the Indo Pacific region. The bulk of the catches taken in by various gear types (particularly trawl gear) in Sabah's coastal waters consists mainly of demersal species. There are approximately at least 400 species represented by 170 genera and 100 families of demersal fishes in Sabah waters. The term pelagic fish refers to fishes that spend all or most of their adult life living through the water column away from the sea bed. While considerably less diverse compared to demersal species, the pelagic assemblage is still species-rich consisting of about 100 species distributed among 50 genera and 20 families.

In 1996, the total fish production from marine capture fisheries was 167,000 metric tonnes. Of these, commercial gears contributed about 70 percent (117,427 metric tons) of the total marine fish landings. The bulk of the commercial landings were contributed by 25-40 GRT trawlers (24 percent of total marine landings), bottom gillnets (10 percent) and 10-40 GRT purse seiners (9 percent). Landings from traditional gears which represented 27 percent of the total marine fish landings were mainly contributed by hook & line (handlines contributed 10 percent of total marine landings), bagang (static liftnet) (7 percent) and selambau (active liftnet) (4 percent).

The breakdown of marine fish landings by fishing sector are given in Table 40 and Table 41 . Sabah contributed respectively about 16.9 percent and 2.0 percent by volume of the inshore and deep sea landings in 1995. Purse seiners contributed the bulk of deep sea landings (95.3 percent) in Sabah. In FT Labuan, trawlers contributed 72.9 percent of the deep sea landings, with an additional 25.3 percent by purse seiners and less than 2 percent by longline.

Table 40: Marine fish landing by fish group and gear group 1995

Fisheries

Component

Gear landings (metric ton)

Wholesale value

(RM million)

Average

RM/kg

Traditional

Commercial

Combined

Demersal species

10,369

22,584

32,953

106.26

3.22

Pelagic species

23,236

53,939

77,175

151.36

1.96

Crabs

2,398

1,433

3,831

12.86

3.36

Shrimps

1,104

11,386

12,490

89.03

7.13

Trash fish

809

15,101

15,910

2.07

0.13

Cephalopods

795

5,369

6,164

23.49

3.81

Others

2,830

887

3,717

3.21

0.86

Assorted species

104

3,877

3,981

7.03

1.77

Elasmobranchs

1,256

2,851

4,107

3.65

0.89

TOTAL

42,901

117,427

160,328

398.96

2.49

Table 41: Marine fish landings (metric ton) by gear group 1992-1995

Gear

1992

1993

1994

1995

mean

%

Trawlnet

30,955

34,610

39,272

53,037

39,469

28.21

Seine Nets

20,410

22,493

25,524

30,731

24,790

17.72

Gillnets

24,510

32,743

37,153

33,659

32,016

22.88

Liftnets

12,530

17,623

19,997

17,446

16,899

12.08

Hook & Line

14,742

18,563

21,064

16,617

17,747

12.68

Misc. Gears

5,290

10,273

11,657

8,838

9,015

6.44

Total

108,437

136,305

154,667

160,328

139,934

100%

6.4.5. Aquaculture In Sabah

Aquaculture is a nascent industry in Sabah. In terms of operation scale, small farms predominate which are practised more on a subsistence level. Only a few farms of medium scale operations can be considered to be commercially oriented in practice. Marine aquaculture mainly deals, in order of importance, in the culture of tiger prawns ( Penaeus monodon ) in brackish water ponds, cage culture, brackish water pond culture (fish), seaweed culture and mollusc culture.

Aquaculture production in Sabah has seen steady growth over the past few years; in 1996 production was 10,092.3 tonnes (includes seaweed) , or around 5% of the total fisheries production from the State as shown in Table 42 . In 1996, Sabah contributed around 9.4% to the aquaculture production for Malaysia as a whole (of 107,000 tonnes). In terms of production, inland aquaculture contributes most to the overall production with 6,233 tonnes (64%) of the total. However, in economic value, coastal aquaculture contributes most (55.4%) to the total estimated value of RM 81.68 million. This difference is a reflection of the emphasis of coastal aquaculture towards the culture of high value species.

Table 42: Aquaculture production 1990-96


1990

1996


Area

(ha)

Production

(tonnes)

Value

(RM million)

Area

(ha)

Production (tonnes)

Shrimp

412

800

12.0

502*

1,757

Finfish

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

855

Molluscs

0

none

0

>6.8

14.3

Seaweed**

n/a

302.7

0.39

52.5

1,233

Inland aquaculture

1,023.28

5,200

31.2

1,203

6,233

Total

>1,023.28

7,917.7

31.59

>1,262.3

10,092.3

** Dried weight (10% of fresh weight) # Mussels only

Note: Data derived from various sources within DOF. Note also that DOF State and Federal aquaculture statistics differ slightly

In 1996, there were more than 130 farmers involved in shrimp culture (mostly in the Tawau district, with some in Kota Belud, Sandakan, Tuaran and Kudat). At present, there are probably 36 active farms (655 ponds, total pond area of 545 ha) of various sizes, mainly small-scale operations, involved in shrimp culture. Most of the medium- to commercial-scale farms are located in Tawau. In 1996, the production from these farms was estimated around 1,757 metric tons. At present, there are 14 shrimp hatcheries in Sabah which has a potential output of at least 62 million shrimp PLs annually.

About 127 operators are involved in cage culture activities, which at present are primarily used either for growout purposes or as holding/transition facilities for highly value species (groupers : Epinephelus spp., Cromileptes altivelis, Plectropomus leopardus , trevally : Caranx spp., snapper : Lutjanus spp., parrot fish : Cheilinus undulatus, sea bass : Lates calcarifer ). These fishes are mainly for export with some also supplied to local restaurants. Cage culture operations are mainly carried out in Kota Belud, Tuaran, Kinarut, Semporna - Beluran and Sandakan. In 1995, about 513 metric tons of live fish (mainly from cage culture) of various highly value species were exported, mainly to Hong Kong with some to Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Table 43 shows some statistics on marine cage culture in Sabah.

Table 43: Marine cage culture in Sabah 1994

District

No. of farmers

Production (metric tons)

Sandakan

47

360

Tuaran

24

50

Kudat

13

119

Kota Marudu

10

0.22

Kota Kinabalu

7

255

Beaufort

5

2.5

Semporna

4

8

Lahad Datu

4

3.2

Beluran

2

1

Tawau

1

1.2

Total

117

800.12

For mollusc culture, the main species cultured are oysters, mussels and cockles. Mollusc culture is mainly concentrated in the Tuaran area, although culture sites are found in various localities throughout the State.

Semporna is the main seaweed-producing area in Sabah. Until recently, the main species cultured were E. cottonii and E. spinosum but farmers have now stopped producing the latter species, as exporters prefer E. cottonii . The production of seaweed has increased dramatically in the past 4 years, with an estimated production of 1,233 tonnes of dry seaweed in 1996, compared to 302.7 tonnes in 1990.

6.5. Suitability of Marine Uses

In the context of suitability of marine uses insofar as this relate to fisheries development in the coastal zone, the potential yield of fisheries resources and the exploitation must be discussed. The following also discussed the potential for aquaculture development in Sabah taking into account the suitability of coastal zone resources.

6.5.1. Potential Yield

There is limited information on the potential yield of marine fishery resources in Sabah. Data obtained from past resource surveys to a certain extent gave a general overview on the availability of resources in the area ( Table 44 and Table 45 ). Further surveys are still needed to verify these results. The potential yield of fisheries resources in Sabah is estimated about of 350,000 metric tons ( Table 46 ). This is a conservative estimate, where the potential yield of pelagic resources (e.g. tuna and small pelagics) in the EEZ and fishes in coral reefs and shoal areas are unknown and might be underestimated.

Table 44: Biomass estimates of Demersal resources on the west coast

Fishing zone

Coastal

Offshore

Combined

Estimated Trawlable Area

11,400 km 2

16,300 km 2

27,700 km 2

Mean Trawl Catch Rate

169 kg/hour

265 kg/hour

208 kg/hour

Commercial Fish

79%

90%

85%

Trash Trash

21%

10%

15%

Mean Fish Density

2.55 mt/km 2

3.98 mt/km 2

3.14 mt/km 2

Total Demersal Biomass

29,070 mt

64,870 mt

86,980 mt

Table 45: Demersal catches composition in the offshore area, West Coast

Common Name

% Caught

Threadfin Bream : Nemipterus

22.4

Family Carangidae : Mainly Decapterus

15.9

Sharks And Rays

7.7

Lizard Fish : Saurida

6.1

Cat Fish : Arius

5.7

Family Mullidae : Mainly Upeneus

5.5

Red Bigeye Bream : Priacanthus

4.3

Family Lutjanidae : Mainly Lutjanus

3.3

Family Scombridae : Mainly Mackerels

2.9

Cephalopods

1.4

Other Commercial Fishes (Various Species)

17.9

Trash Fishes

7.0

Total

100%

Table 46: Potential yields estimates of fisheries resources in Sabah

Region

Resource Category

Potential Yield Metric Tons

Current Landings Metric Tons

Coastal Zone

Small Pelagics

80,000

55,000

(Within 12 Nm Zone)

Tuna

20,000

10,000


Demersal Fish

130,000

40,000


Coral Fishes

N.A.

N.A.


Crustaceans

20,000

16,000


Other Invertebrates

15,000

9,000

Deepsea Zone

Pelagic**

54,000

1,500

(Beyond 12 Nm Zone)

Tuna

20,000

1,000


Demersal**

11,000

500

Total

350,000

28,000

Notes: ** based on survey data of chartered FAO research vessel (RV Rastrelliger) in 1985-87 (Anonymous, 1989)

underestimated landings (landings in FT Labuan and catches of foreign vessels in the EEZ are not considered.

6.5.2. Status of Fisheries Resources and the potential for exploitation

The pelagic stocks in Sabah are migratory in nature, which are also being shared among coastal states in the Southeast Asian region. Among those identified to be the most common trans-boundary species are mackerels ( Rastrelliger spp.), round scad ( Decapterus spp.) and tuna.

Large pelagics refers mainly to oceanic tunas, some large carangids (e.g. trevally) and oceanic sharks. In this context, the “large pelagic” fishery refers only to tunas which formed the bulk of the pelagic landings. Available assessment information indicated that the small pelagic resources in the inshore coastal waters are moderately exploited, and for the outer shelf area and offshore waters to be lightly exploited. At present, the current pelagic landings of about 65,000 mt (55,000 mt of small pelagics and 10,000 mt of small to large tunas) are still below the combined potential yield of 100,000 mt (80,000 mt of small pelagics and 20,000 mt of small to large tunas). The current tuna landings of approximately 10,000 metric tons per annum which includes both coastal (neritic) and oceanic tunas, can be increased significantly if appropriate gears and techniques are used. In particular, the use of FADs in conjunction with purse seining, usage of midwater trawling and the expansion of both handline and longline operations, could enhance production. However, since the above estimates of stock availability are still preliminary in nature, more rigorous assessments will therefore be needed. Also, no data is available at the moment on the species breakdown of the tuna landings but a substantial portion consists mainly of coastal species.

In general, the coastal demersal finfish resources in Sabah are moderately to heavily exploited, particularly by trawlers. However, some areas can still be further exploited. A substantial portion of the continental shelf along the west coast are untrawlable due to unsuitable substrate characteristics and industrial installation (e.g. petroleum platforms and pipelines). Due to the present constraints in fishing technology, the trawlable portion of the outer continental shelf on the west coast is also unexploited. Therefore, it appears that there are still further development potential in these areas if appropriate fishing gears and techniques are used. In particular, increased handline and longlining activities may increase the demersal production of high value species (e.g. snappers, groupers, wrasses) considerably. These species are important components in the live fish trade either for the domestic market (seafood restaurants) or for export purposes (e.g. Hong Kong). In most trawlable grounds, the trash by-catch of trawlers which consisted mainly of juvenile commercial species are presently underutilised, with only a certain portion being brought back to shore and processed (e.g. fish meals, fish cakes/balls). Effective downstream processing to convert this under-utilised component can further enhance the development of the demersal fisheries sector.

Based on the analysis of available CPUE (catch and effort) data, it is clear that the shrimp resources in Sabah are intensively exploited and therefore there is no further development opportunities in this sub sector. There is compelling evidence to support a further reduction in the fishing effort that could not only enhance the present catch per unit effort but could also result in modest increase in the future overall shrimp landings.

Blood cockles ( Anadara granosa ) formed the bulk of bivalve landings in the state, which comes from Sandakan (mainly from Labuk Bay) and Tawau. Landings of other bivalves may have been significant but no data is presently available on their actual contribution to the fishery. Highly value species that has good investment opportunities, among others, are the artificial propagation and sea ranching of giant clams ( Tricdana spp.), abalone ( Haliotis spp.) and pearl oyster.

Cephalopods formed a significant portion of the trawl fishery in Sabah. More resource assessment, work and research into the distribution, abundance and general biology of major cephalopod species is needed before determinations can be made concerning the future development of this fishery. The intensive use of more species-specific gear types and techniques (e.g. light attractants, jigging gear) may result in substantial increases in landings.

It is generally believed that a substantial portion of the lobster landings in Sabah comes from neighbouring countries. This fishery is mainly concentrated in areas which have extensive coral reefs and rocky shoals, mainly around Semporna, off Kudat and areas along the west coast. In view of the fact that a significant portion of the coral reefs in Sabah are severely damaged due to dynamite and cyanide fishing, it is unlikely to be any substantial development of the fishery. Habitat creation and enhancement through the development of additional artificial reefs in suitable areas may result in some minor increase in production.

The main components of the local crab fishery are mud crabs ( Scylla serrata ) and pelagic crabs ( Portunus pelagicus ). Overall, mud crabs fetches better prices (RM 4-6/kg) compared to pelagic crabs (RM 2-3/kg). The crab fishery in Sabah are targeted for both local and export markets. Pelagic crabs are mainly caught as the by-catch of trawlers, while mud crabs are caught using traps in mangrove and estuarine areas. Juvenile or unmarketable mud crabs are also reared in ponds for fattening and grow-out purposes prior being sold to seafood restaurants or exported out of the state. At present, the crab landings in the state are relatively stable and to a certain extent reflect the level of fishing effort exerted. In view of the saturation of trawler effort and also the gradual destruction of mangrove areas due to uncontrolled coastal development, it is therefore unlikely for a significant development in this sector.

6.5.3. Potential for Aquaculture Development

There is potential for some expansion of shrimp culture in Sabah, although the area available is not large compared to other regional countries. The Aquaculture Masterplan Study undertaken by the Fisheries department, Sabah in 1996 shows that for coastal shrimp aquaculture there is a total coastal area of 929,889 ha, areas with high potential covered 4,048 ha (0.4%), medium covered 145,551 ha (15.6%) and low potential 123,060 (13.2%). Areas of high and medium potential are most likely to be suitable for shrimp farm development, as borne out by the analysis of the Tawau area where much of the existing farms are on land classified as high and medium potential. The analysis also indicates that Sabah has a relatively low area which is ideal (high potential) for shrimp aquaculture development. Assuming that both high and medium have some physical potential for development (albeit under different constraints), this gives a potential area of 149,599 ha.

There was a considerable geographical variation in shrimp culture potential. The areas with largest apparent potential were Pitas and Sandakan. The analysis also shows a large area in Tawau covering 18,852 ha, including the existing shrimp farming areas.

Based on such considerations and this initial analysis, a tentative priority list of districts with significant potential for further detailed analysis of shrimp aquaculture potential can be drawn up as follows and as shown in Table 47 and Table 48 :

Table 47: Shrimp Aquaculture potential (ha) based on GIS analysis

Area

High

Medium

Low

Potential area*

% M/H of total potential area

Sipitang

167

12782

3973

12,949

8.66

Kuala Penyu and Beaufort

0

9787

9135

9787

6.54

Papar

441

13809

3714

14,250

9.52

Kota Kinabalu and Telipok

599

11464

2200

12,063

8.06

Kota Belud

357

7404

1344

7,761

5.19

Kudat

5

3953

2050

3,958

2.65

P. Banggi and Balambangan

0

3034

7961

3,034

2.03

Kota Marudu

517

7790

3580

8,308

5.55

Pitas

782

14926

9765

15,708

10.50

Jambongan

40

4301

8493

4,342

2.90

Sg. Labuk and Sugut

0

4105

17117

4,105

2.74

Sandakan

413

14784

2277

15,197

10.16

Kinabatangan

0

88

10196

88

0.06

Tambisan

63

10253

6011

10,317

6.90

Tungku

100

3557

9790

3,657

2.44

Bakapit

44

3069

1144

3,114

2.08

Lahad Datu

0

34

6580

34

0.02

Kunak

0

791

92

791

0.53

Semporna (A)

8

213

386

221

0.15

Semporna (B)

0.04

1063

579

1,063

0.71

Tawau (A)

63

6446

11785

6,509

4.35

Tawau (B)

446

11898

4886

12,344

8.25

Total area

4048

145551

123060

149,599

100

Notes: *Potential areas (ha) = high + medium; ** Potential area (%) = (high + medium) * 100 / total

The same study by the Fisheries Department also analysed the potential cage farming areas in Sabah. The study indicated a significant area for marine cage farming in several districts. The analysis confirms the high potential in Sandakan bay, where there is already some cage farming development, but also reveals a significant and untapped potential in Semporna. (Note: The Study Report comments that there were a number of other areas where the GIS analysis could not be undertaken because of a lack of bathymetric data, including small mangrove creeks. The analysis therefore probably underestimates potential cage farming areas in Sabah.)

Table 48: Marine cage Aquaculture potential (ha) based on GIS analysis

Place name

Potential for development (ha)

High

Medium

Low

Gaya and Sepangar Bay

9.9

856.7

637.3

Usukan Bay

93.4

191.1


Kudat Bay

75.5

482.8

0.6

P. Banggi & Balambangan

0.2

1167.1

878.2

Sandakan Bay

113.2

3559.3

1247.3

Lahad Datu

0.7

2579.0

939.7

Semporna

936.3

6696.7

1107.


1229.25

15532.6

4172.8

A GIS analysis carried out by the Fisheries Department shows clearly that the northern and south-eastern part of Sabah are potentially more suitable for seaweed culture, more so than the western area. The area in the western part had only 300 ha, compared to the 15,958 ha in the northern part and 1,824 ha in the eastern part and 84,330 ha in the Semporna area ( Table 49 ). This analysis fits in with the existing patterns of seaweed farming in Sabah, with most farms in the Semporna area, although it indicates the potential for expansion into other areas, subject to more detailed analysis of exposure, water depth, pollution risk, accessibility and potential environmental impacts on coral reefs.

Table 49: Potential areas for seaweed development (ha)

Name

Area (ha.)

Total (ha.)

No. of existing farms*

Kuala Penyu

239.4

299.8


Kota Kinabalu

14.0



Pangalat

46.4



Kudat

848.9

15,958.5

10

Karakit

2,531.8



Tandak

10.3



Telaga

294.0



Bambangan

1,486.9



Langkon

209.0


16**

Langkon (2)

297.7



Pulau Tagajawan

2,632.3



Pulau Malawali

4,246.1



Balambangan Barat

246.2



Pulau Mandidarah

3,155.3



Kampung Lok Agong

1,034.8

1,824.8


Terusan

736.5



Tanjung Labian

53.5



Lahad Datu

129.7

84,330.3


Apas Balung

37.3



Bakapit

983.4



Semporna

6,231.1


226

Pulau Silawa

75,477.4



Silam

626.4



Pulau Timbun Mata

85.0



Pulau Sakar

759.9




102,413.4

102,413.4


Notes: *Field survey data **Farms found at Kota Belud.

Areas where oysters and green mussels are being cultured include Setompok Bay (Kuala Penyu), Sg. Klias, Menumbok, the Mengkabong estuary, Sandakan bay, and Tawau bay. Other areas which may have similar environment or bottom substrate are the Sulaman bay in the West Coast, Kudat bay near Dampirit and the Labuk bay in Sandakan. Such areas have potential for future development for mollusc some types of mollusc culture, but field surveys are required to identify specific sites and to assess the extent of the potential areas.

6.6. Existing Protected Areas

6.6.1. Forest Reserve Class and Other Protected Areas

The respective functions of each Permanent Forest Estate (PFE) as shown in Table 50 and mapped on Map 9: Protected Areas in Annex B are briefly clarified as follows:

Protection Forest Reserves (Class I) are forested areas are conserved for maintaining the stability of essential climatic, watershed and other environmental factors.

Commercial Forest Reserves (Class II) are forested areas, which can be logged to extract timber and other forest products. These include lowland, hill Dipterocarp forest and forest up to about 800m.

Domestic Forest Reserves (Class III) are forested areas for supplying timber and other forest products for local consumption only.

Amenity Forest Reserves (Class IV) are forested areas for providing recreational sites especially on roadsides in Sabah.

Mangroves Forest Reserves (Class V) are forested areas for supplying mangrove timber and other produce. Rhizophora species are most commonly harvested with products ranging from firewood to fishing stakes. The Forestry Department controls commercial harvesting of all mangrove wood products.

Virgin Jungle Reserves (Class VI) are forested areas conserved intact for research purposes where no logging activities are allowed.

Wildlife Reserves (Class VII) are forested areas conserved primarily for the protection of wild animal species and presently under the jurisdiction of the Forestry Department.

Table 50: Sabah: Permanent Forest Estate (PFE) 1996

Class

Forest Reserves

Area (ha.)

I

Protection

283,376

II

Commercial

2,743,959

III

Domestic

7,355

IV

Amenity

20,767

V

Mangrove

316,024

VI

Virgin Jungle Reserve (VJR)

90,386

VII

Wildlife

132,653


Total

3,594,520

6.6.2. Forestland

Forestlands in Sabah are divided into five major vegetation types as shown in Table 51 .

Table 51: Sabah Forest Land By Major Vegetation Type 1975-95

Forest Type

1975

Area (Ha.)

Percentage of total land in Sabah

1995

Area (Ha.)

Percentage of total land in Sabah

(a) Mangrove forests

365,500

4.96

317,400

4.30

(b) Transitional, Beach

and Swamp Forests

203,256

2.76

193,000

2.62

(c) Undisturbed High

Forests -

Lowland Dipterocarp

Forest and Highland

Dipterocarp Forests

2,800,236

37.99

300,000

4.07

(d) Montane Forests

711,874

10.47

700,000

9.50

(e) Other Forests

(Immature, Disturbed

and Regenerating

Forests) *

1,399,024

18.98

2,799,220

37.97

Total

5,539,890

75.16

4,309,620

58.46

Note: * Excluding Plantation Forests

Sabah's general vegetation may be described as a succession from coastal beach forest and mangrove to lowland dipterocarp forest, hill dipterocarp forest and eventually montane forest.

Mangrove Forests (317,400 hectares) cover a greater area in Sabah than in other states in Malaysia. It is concentrated mostly on the east and south-east coast of the state. Mangroves are important for physical protection of the coastline and act as nurseries for the early stages of fish and prawn.

Species identification from 1:25,000 scale aerial photographs is only possible in few cases, mainly in the mangrove forests. Mangrove species often occurring in pure stands such as Bakau ( Rhizophora mucronata ) and Bangkita ( Rhizophora apiculata ) can be easily recognised from aerial photos. Table 52 describes the classification of tidal forest based on species composition average maximum stand height and crown density.

Table 52: Tidal Forests Classification

Tidal Forest Class

Decsription

Nipah

Nipah palm ( Nipa fructicans ) which occurs in pure or mixed with mangrove species over large areas.

Bakau/Bangkita

Bakau ( Rhizophora mucronata ) and Bangkita ( Rhizophora apiculata ) often occurs pratically in pure stands.

Buta-Buta

Buta buta (Excoecaria agallocha ) sometimes occur in larger concentrations.

Beus

Beus ( Bruguiera spp.) nomally occurs in pure stands.

Tengar

Dominated by Tengar ( Ceriops tagal).

Api-Api/Perepat

Dominated by Api-Api ( Avicennia spp. ) and perepat ( Sonneratia spp .)

Nipah Mixed

Predominated by Nipah palm but mixed with other mangrove species.

Other mixed species

Other mixed mangrove species.

Non commercial

Mangrove forest of non-commercial size.

Logged over area

Mangrove forest which has been logged.

6.6.3. Parks and Other Recreational Areas

The parks cover approximately 2.6% of Sabah’s total land area of 76,115 sq. kms. They are managed to provide recreational and scientific facilities while preserving Sabah’s nature heritage for future generations. Currently there are 6 parks ( Table 53 ) under the direct care of Sabah Parks which fully funded and controlled by the government through a Board of Trustee under the State’s Ministry of Tourism and Research.

Table 53: Parks in Sabah

No

Location & Description

Area (ha.)

Gazetted

1

Kinabalu Park, Sabah’s oldest park, 90 kms. and 2 hours drive from Kota Kinabalu. Special interest areas include the Mount Kinabalu and Poring Hot Spring.

75,370

1964

2

Tengku Abdul Rahman Park, a marine park consist of 5 island and about 10 minutes boat ride from Kota Kinabalu

4,929

1974

3

Pulau Tiga Park, a marine park consist of 3 island and about 48 kms. south of Kota Kinabalu.

15,864

1978

4

Crocker Range Park. This is the Crocker Range, a giant backbone green mountain ridges of Borneo. Accessible through Tambunan – Kota Kinabalu highway.

139,919

1984

5

Turtle Island Park, a marine park about 3 hour’s boat rides from Sandakan. Some parts of the parks are bordering the Philippines.

1,740

1977

6

Tawau Hills park, originally conserved for Tawau Water Catchment Area and later managed and developed as an attraction site for tourist and research centre. Located 24 kms from Tawau.

27,972

1979

6.6.4. Site Museums, Monuments & Historical Buildings

The Agop Tulug Museum

This site museum at Batu Putih Village about 41 kilometres from the Kota Kinabatangan Township. Agop (means "cave") Batu Tulug, which is part of the Labang limestone formation, comprised of 3 caves of which the middle and upper caves contain more than 100 carved coffins of about 200-250 years old. The artefacts and archaeology of the caves has contributed a lot to the body of knowledge of the early settlers of Sabah.

The Kinabalu War Memorial

This Memorial is located in Kundasang, Ranau, about 108 km from Kota Kinabalu. The Memorial takes the form of a walled garden and it was built to honour all those killed in the death march of the Second World War. The death march was ordered by the Japanese in January 1945. 2500 prisoners-of-war (1800 Australian and 700 British soldiers) marched from Sandakan to Ranau, a distance of 240 km. Only six survived the terrible trek across mountainous and forested terrain.

The Petagas Memorial

The Memorial is a garden situated about 9 km from Kota Kinabalu. It was erected in memory of those who died for the country while fighting the Japanese, particularly those who were massacred on the 21 January 1944. Those who were massacred numbered 324 and they were members of a guerrilla group called the Kinabalu Guerrillas led by Albert Kwok.

The Sandakan War Memorial Park

This Memorial is situated on the former prisoner-of-war camp of the Second World War. It is located 11 km from Sandakan town along Labuk Road. The Memorial is dedicated to the memory of the Australian, British and local soldiers who perished there. It was from this camp that the infamous Sandakan Death March commenced in January 1945.

It was opened on the 21 November 1986 and converted into a park in 1991. The park covers an area of 13 acres.

The Ranau War Memorial

This Memorial is located about 10 minutes drive from Ranau town, about 108 km from Kota Kinabalu. The Memorial marks the site of a prison camp of the survivors of the first death march from Sandakan to Ranau.

Mat Salleh Memorial

This Memorial is located in Kampung Tibabar, Tambunan that is about 50 miles from the state capital, Kota Kinabalu. The Memorial marks the site of the Mat Salleh fort which was invaded and destroyed by the North Borneo Armed Constabulary on the 1 st February 1900. During the battle, Mat Salleh, who for six years led a rebellion against the Chartered Company Administration, met his death.

Panorama Kinarut Mansion

The Kinarut Mansion site was gazetted as a historical site on August 1994. On the site used to be located a magnificent mansion which was built by W.F.C Asimont, the manager of the surrounding Kinarut Estate, between 1910 and 1914 but was demolished around 1923. The former Kinarut estate represents the pioneering era of large-scale commercial crop cultivation in early North Borneo and the contribution by foreign, private companies to develop Sabah's economy. The site is named Panorama Kinarut Mansion. It contains abundant plants and has a scenic view of the sea and islands.

6.6.5. Wildlife Reserves

The areas listed in Table 54 are under the control of the Department of Wildlife, except for Likas Lagoon which under the Likas Wetland Sanctuary Management Committee. The Likas Wetlands consist of Kota Kinabalu City Bird Sanctuary (KKCBS), a 24 Hectare remnant patch of mangroves locate two kilometres from the centre of Kota Kinabalu and Likas Lagoon, a 22 hectare area of fresh water grassland and open water situated 1.5 kilometres from KKCBS at Likas Bay. The chief minister of Sabah initiated the wetlands in September 1996. Likas Lagoon also will remain under the management of the Department of Irrigation and Drainage as a flood water retention pond to be managed jointly with KKCBS for water bird conservation.

Table 54: Wildlife Reserves

No.

Location & Description

Total Area (Ha)

Year Gazetted

1

Tabin Wildlife Reserve*

120,521

1984

2

Kulamba Wildlife Reserve*

20,862

1984

3

Sipadan Island Bird Sanctuary

12

1934

4

Lower Kinabatangan

27,000

Proposed

5

Sepilok Orang Utan Rehabilitation Centre*

4,294

1931

6

Gomantong Cave Forest Reserve*

1,816

1984

7

Mantanani Island Bird Sanctuary

61

1960

8

Kota Belud Bird Sanctuary

12,200

1960

9

Likas Lagoon

22

1996

10

Padang Teratak Bird Sanctuary (Klias Peninsular)

2,750

Proposed

11

Kota Kinabalu City Birds Sanctuary

24

1998

12

Botanical And Zoological Garden

121

1996

Note: * denotes within Forest Reserve.

6.6.6. Water Catchment Management Area

The term “catchment” means the whole of the land and water surface, which contribute to the discharge at a particular point on a stream or river, or contributes water to an aquifer. The whole of Sabah is located in one catchment or another [7].

Water Catchment Management Areas are areas identified in catchment for the management of water resources. According to the Water Resources Management Enactment, Sabah 1998, water management areas are divided into two categories; they are Water Protection Areas and Water Conservation Areas [8]. Currently, 16 Water Catchment Areas has been gazetted.

Water Protection Areas

Water Protection Areas are areas created to ensure a source of water, or water resources in a particular body or locality, is adequately protected from reduction in flow, or from pollution or degradation. Currently, 49 Water Protection Areas has been identified from the Sabah Water Resources Master Plan, 1994 for potential dam sites. More areas need to be identified in the future.

Water Conservation Areas

Water Conservation Areas are areas created to control, limit or modify activities within an area of land, to prevent pollution or degradation of surface water or ground water or the loss of its availability. So far no areas has been earmarked as Water Conservation Areas in Sabah as detailed integrated catchment management studies need to be carried out for their identification. Relevant agency is currently seeking for international funding to carry out the detail studies.


[7] Sabah Water Resources Enactment 1998

[8] Sabah Water Resources Master Plan, 1994